How 2020 Changed Housing Affordability


Over the last year:

  • Three out of four Americans living in counties with a median annual income below $65,000 saw rents increase
  • Six out of ten Americans living in counties with a median annual income greater than $100,000 saw rents decrease
  • Rents in suburban and rural counties outpaced rents in urban counties by about 7% on average
  • Expensive cities saw rents decline while more affordable cities saw rents climb

Introduction

As of March 2021, a full year has passed since the coronavirus pandemic hit the United States. An overwhelming amount of evidence has shown that the pandemic and subsequent recession were defined by inequality. Those towards the bottom of the income distribution faced adverse outcomes such as higher rates of infection and unemployment. Meanwhile, those towards the top have remained relatively unaffected.

Housing is another facet in which the pandemic has disproportionately harmed lower income Americans. The country currently faces a looming eviction crisis. An estimated $33 billion was owed in back rent by 6 million Americans as of March of 2021 according to Moody’s Analytics– an average of about $5,300 per person. There is plenty of evidence that this enormous sum of back rent is disproportionately owed by less affluent Americans and racial and ethnic minorities. According to the latest Household Pulse Survey from the Census, 20% of households earning less than $30,000 were behind on rent payments, while only 12% of households earning $30,000 or more were behind. Additionally, 20% of Black and Hispanic households were behind on rent, compared to only 11% of White households.

The Biden administration’s recently passed American Rescue Plan contains $21.6 billion to help cover back rent and utilities. But an approximate $11 billion of owed back rent would persist after this federal assistance, and it will likely continue to accumulate in the coming months. This owed back rent will likely still lead to an eviction cliff in the near future despite the nationwide eviction moratorium recently being extended to the end of June.

This all paints a drastic picture for American renters and housing affordability in 2021. However, the pandemic likely affected housing affordability in another way- through rental prices. With a year’s worth of data on rents, the rest of this article discusses how rental market trends brought on by the pandemic likely had an adverse affect on housing affordability in the US.

A Brief Recap

Soon after the pandemic hit the US in March 2020, the labor market crashed and the economy entered a recession. Additionally, many employers limited in-office gatherings and expanded work from home policies in an attempt to limit the spread of the virus. As a result, a significant number of people moved out of expensive, urban markets due to either financial hardship or the ability to work remotely. The most popular destinations these urbanites moved to were cheaper, less-urban, neighboring locations. These destinations saw substantial increases to housing costs due to the influx of new demand. Meanwhile, the urban markets that people left saw substantial housing cost decreases.

In the rental market, the more expensive a city’s pre-pandemic rent was, the more likely it was to decrease. Inversely, the cheaper a city was pre-pandemic, the more likely rents went up. This relationship can be visualized by comparing median rent prices in each city right before the pandemic (February 2020) to the growth in those median prices since the pandemic. The chart below shows this relationship for the 100 cities tracked in the Zumper National Rent Report.

2020 Rental Market Trends Likely Decreased Housing Affordability

The above chart shows that the most expensive parts of the country saw significant decreases to rental prices, while historically cheaper places saw rents rise. However, rental prices are highly correlated with income so expensive cities where rents dropped the most are also some of the most affluent cities in the country. Conversely, cheaper cities where rents increased have less affluent populations in general. Thus, 2020 gave rise to a divergence between rents and income, which likely led to an aggregate decrease in housing affordability in the US.

This divergence can be seen by comparing rent changes and incomes across the country. The chart below shows changes in 1-bedroom median rent compared to median household incomes at the county level in 2020. Data for all counties in which Zumper had sufficient coverage (at least 50 listings in February 2021 and February 2020) are included. The result is a sample of 410 counties, which represent about 70% of the US population. Zumper’s listings skew toward urban areas, so many less populous, rural counties are missing in the data. However, a vast majority of Americans are represented since there is ample coverage in populous counties, and a significant amount of non-urban and rural counties represented in the data as well.

The above plot provides some interesting insights into how housing affordability changed in 2020.

First, there was a clear inverse relationship between income and rent growth in 2020- less affluent counties tended to see rents grow while more affluent counties tended to see rents decline. Fitting a trendline to this data weighted by each county’s population results in a slope of -1.6% per $10,000 (p<0.001, r2=0.09). This implies that for every $10,000 increase in a county’s median income, rent changed about 1.6% less, on average. This trend is denoted by the dashed line in the above plot. 

Secondly, the extremes of this trend paint a somewhat alarming picture. Consider the differences between Santa Clara County, CA and Wayne County, MI- two regions with populations of a similar size. Santa Clara County- fueled by an exodus of people out of the Bay Area– saw one of the largest rental price decreases in 2020 at -21%. However, Santa Clara County is part of  Silicon Valley, and is one of the wealthiest counties in the country with a median household income of $133,000 in 2019. Wayne County, MI, home to Detroit, is substantially less affluent with a median household income of $51,000. However, rents increased 22% from a year ago in Wayne County- almost the exact opposite amount from Santa Clara County. Despite falling on opposite ends of the income distribution, rents went down dramatically for wealthy Santa Clara County but increased dramatically for less affluent Wayne County. 

In general, this systematic disconnect between income and rent growth in 2020 across the country likely resulted in an aggregate decrease in housing affordability. 

However, rents did not increase for all lower income Americans and decrease for all higher income Americans. Another effect at play is the divergence in rent change between urban and non-urban places. Counties where rents declined tended to skew more urban while counties where rents increased tended to skew less urban. There were a cluster of counties with median income levels below $70,000 that benefitted from urban price declines in 2020 such as Cook County, IL ($69K, -4%), Miami-Dade County, FL ($55k, -7%), and Bronx County, NY ($41K, -4%). Similarly, there were some very wealthy suburban counties that saw rents increase, such as Loudoun County, VA ($152K, +8%) and Suffolk County, NY ($106K, +6%).

Even when comparing counties of the same level of urbanization, the relationship between rent growth and income is still strong. “Controlling” for urbanization yields a trendline of -2.1% per $10,000 increase in median household income (p<0.001, r2=0.23). The implication is that rents increased more in less affluent urban areas as well less affluent rural areas.

Additionally, outliers to the relationship between rent growth and income can be explained by the “neighboring cities” effect. This effect is a 2020 migration pattern where people who moved out of hyper-expensive regions generally moved to nearby places that were relatively cheaper. The neighboring cities effect in New York City, for example, explains two significant and opposite outliers to the above trend: Kings County, NY and Nassau County, NY. Kings County is essentially the borough of Brooklyn while Nassau County is the wealthy, suburban portion of western Long Island that borders Queens. Kings County, in line with the rest of New York City, experienced a large outward migration in 2020. A significant amount of people that left NYC moved to suburban places like Nassau County that had relatively cheaper rents, despite incomes being higher there, on average. The result is that people abandoned an expensive, urban, less wealthy area (Kings County), for a cheaper, suburban, more wealthy area (Nassau County).

Despite these additional phenomena, the takeaway from the above plot is clear: a large portion of lower income Americans saw their rents go up in 2020 while many more affluent Americans saw their rents go down. Below is a table showing data points at the extremes of this trend- where rents rose or fell the most in 2020:

This Housing Affordability Shift is Unique to 2020

Typically, percentage rent change and income have no relationship because rents grow at a constant percentage on average, or the trend is reversed in times when rents have grown faster in higher income, urban areas. In 2019, for instance, the relationship between percentage rent change and income was flat, or non-existent (-0.3%, p>0.1, r2=0.007).

In 2020, the unique migration patterns brought on by the pandemic caused the relationship between income and rents to change, resulting in a decrease in housing affordability.

Rents Increased in the Suburbs and Rural Areas

As mentioned above, rent growth in 2020 differed in urban and non-urban areas. Many people moved out of dense, expensive, urban areas to relatively cheaper, neighboring locations. In addition to cheaper prices, popular destinations also typically offered more space per dollar than places that people left. The increased demand for more space at a lower price was likely related to expanded work from home policies, particularly in urban areas. As employees started commuting to workspaces less and began both living and working in their residences, they searched for living spaces that would accommodate these new needs.

In general, this coalesced as a migration to the suburbs and more rural parts of the country, which caused rents in these regions to significantly outpace rents in urban areas. In the chart below I show average annual rent changes across counties of varying degrees of urbanization using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties.

The takeaway here is clear- rents grew substantially in suburban and rural regions while rents stagnated in urban areas. This largely also explains the inverse relationship between income and rents in 2020. Rural areas experienced substantially more rental growth than urban areas, but also are substantially less affluent.

In California, for instance, rents decreased in the affluent counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area and the Los Angeles area. Meanwhile, rents increased in most other counties outside these wealthy areas. Growth was most highly concentrated near the Tahoe area in Placer County (+29.8%) and El Dorado County (+19.6%), Fresno County (+20.5%), Santa Cruz (+15.0%), and regions outside of Los Angeles including Kent County (+15.6%) and San Bernardino County (+12.8%). These counties all include at least one urban area in some sense, but they are also large counties that include swaths of rural California.

The county level map below shows annual rent changes in California for all available counties:

Conclusions

The coronavirus pandemic and subsequent recession had a much higher impact on lower income Americans than it did on higher income Americans. Housing has become less affordable for lower income Americans and communities of color due to unemployment and financial hardship. However, the pandemic also left lower income Americans worse off by systematically altering rent prices across the country- leaving more rural and suburban renters facing substantially higher rents.

The recent rental and unemployment assistance in the American Rescue Plan and previous assistance from the Cares Act will go a long way to lift this burden- but it may not be enough. 2020 shifted the field in regards to cost of living, and that shift will likely be felt by lower income Americans in 2021 and beyond.


Full Data

MonthCountyStateMedian 1-bed PriceY/Y% Rent ChangeMedian HH IncomePopulationNCHS Urban Category  
2/1/2021Los Angeles CountyCalifornia$1,851-7.4%$72,797 10,039,107Large central metro
2/1/2021Cook CountyIllinois$1,450-4.3%$69,429 5,150,233Large central metro
2/1/2021Harris CountyTexas$1,1350.6%$61,618 4,713,325Large central metro
2/1/2021Maricopa CountyArizona$1,1504.4%$68,649 4,485,414Large central metro
2/1/2021San Diego CountyCalifornia$1,7895.3%$83,985 3,338,330Large central metro
2/1/2021Orange CountyCalifornia$1,985-1.2%$95,934 3,175,692Large central metro
2/1/2021Miami-Dade CountyFlorida$1,553-8.6%$55,171 2,716,940Large central metro
2/1/2021Dallas CountyTexas$1,2751.6%$61,796 2,635,516Large central metro
2/1/2021Kings CountyNew York$2,108-18.2%$66,937 2,559,903Large central metro
2/1/2021Riverside CountyCalifornia$1,5053.8%$73,260 2,470,546Large central metro
2/1/2021Clark CountyNevada$1,1435.1%$62,107 2,266,715Large central metro
2/1/2021Queens CountyNew York$1,825-13.9%$73,696 2,253,858Large central metro
2/1/2021King CountyWashington$1,595-14.7%$102,594 2,252,782Large central metro
2/1/2021San Bernardino CountyCalifornia$1,55012.8%$67,903 2,180,085Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Tarrant CountyTexas$1,0415.3%$70,139 2,102,515Large central metro
2/1/2021Bexar CountyTexas$97010.1%$58,964 2,003,554Large central metro
2/1/2021Broward CountyFlorida$1,395-0.4%$61,502 1,952,778Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Santa Clara CountyCalifornia$2,196-21.2%$133,076 1,927,852Large central metro
2/1/2021Wayne CountyMichigan$1,05022.0%$50,753 1,749,343Large central metro
2/1/2021Alameda CountyCalifornia$1,995-11.3%$108,322 1,671,329Large central metro
2/1/2021New York CountyNew York$2,955-16.7%$93,651 1,628,706Large central metro
2/1/2021Middlesex CountyMassachusetts$1,918-16.6%$107,056 1,611,699Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Philadelphia CountyPennsylvania$1,395-6.7%$47,474 1,584,064Large central metro
2/1/2021Sacramento CountyCalifornia$1,42510.0%$72,017 1,552,058Large central metro
2/1/2021Palm Beach CountyFlorida$1,4000.0%$66,623 1,496,770Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Suffolk CountyNew York$2,1005.8%$106,228 1,476,601Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Hillsborough CountyFlorida$1,2555.1%$61,154 1,471,968Large central metro
2/1/2021Bronx CountyNew York$1,625-4.4%$41,432 1,418,207Large central metro
2/1/2021Orange CountyFlorida$1,247-5.5%$63,461 1,393,452Large central metro
2/1/2021Nassau CountyNew York$2,4383.3%$118,453 1,356,924Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Franklin CountyOhio$9002.3%$64,713 1,316,756Large central metro
2/1/2021Travis CountyTexas$1,200-6.7%$80,726 1,273,954Large central metro
2/1/2021Hennepin CountyMinnesota$1,260-9.7%$82,369 1,265,843Large central metro
2/1/2021Oakland CountyMichigan$1,10915.5%$81,190 1,257,584Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Cuyahoga CountyOhio$9509.8%$52,423 1,235,072Large central metro
2/1/2021Allegheny CountyPennsylvania$1,0000.1%$64,871 1,216,045Large central metro
2/1/2021Salt Lake CountyUtah$1,1243.5%$80,119 1,160,437Large central metro
2/1/2021Contra Costa CountyCalifornia$1,9951.1%$107,135 1,153,526Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Fairfax CountyVirginia$1,9001.2%$128,374 1,147,532Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Wake CountyNorth Carolina$1,1543.8%$84,215 1,111,761Large central metro
2/1/2021Mecklenburg CountyNorth Carolina$1,3174.6%$69,072 1,110,356Large central metro
2/1/2021Fulton CountyGeorgia$1,6023.4%$80,013 1,063,937Large central metro
2/1/2021Montgomery CountyMaryland$1,764-5.9%$110,389 1,050,688Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Pima CountyArizona$7696.3%$56,169 1,047,279Medium metro
2/1/2021Collin CountyTexas$1,3001.5%$96,134 1,034,730Large central metro
2/1/2021Fresno CountyCalifornia$1,17520.5%$57,518 999,101Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Louis CountyMissouri$859-4.5%$70,022 994,205Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Pinellas CountyFlorida$1,2519.2%$56,737 974,996Large central metro
2/1/2021Honolulu CountyHawaii$1,500-6.3%$87,470 974,563Medium metro
2/1/2021Westchester CountyNew York$1,950-9.3%$101,908 967,506Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Marion CountyIndiana$99621.7%$50,458 964,582Large central metro
2/1/2021Duval CountyFlorida$1,00510.1%$58,415 957,755Large central metro
2/1/2021Milwaukee CountyWisconsin$1,210-4.3%$53,418 945,726Large central metro
2/1/2021Fairfield CountyConnecticut$1,773-5.1%$97,053 943,332Medium metro
2/1/2021Shelby CountyTennessee$95011.8%$52,614 937,166Large central metro
2/1/2021Gwinnett CountyGeorgia$1,28310.3%$72,109 936,250Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Bergen CountyNew Jersey$2,1002.4%$108,827 932,202Large fringe metro
2/1/2021DuPage CountyIllinois$1,3943.5%$96,403 922,921Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Erie CountyNew York$1,025-2.8%$60,652 918,702Large central metro
2/1/2021Prince George’s CountyMaryland$1,435-1.0%$86,290 909,327Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Pierce CountyWashington$1,45020.8%$79,243 904,980Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Kern CountyCalifornia$92515.6%$53,067 900,202Medium metro
2/1/2021Hartford CountyConnecticut$1,195-2.4%$75,381 891,720Large central metro
2/1/2021Denton CountyTexas$1,120-1.3%$90,523 887,207Large fringe metro
2/1/2021San Francisco CountyCalifornia$2,663-23.9%$123,859 881,549Large central metro
2/1/2021Macomb CountyMichigan$8556.8%$64,947 873,972Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Hidalgo CountyTexas$605-12.9%$41,800 868,707Medium metro
2/1/2021New Haven CountyConnecticut$1,3505.9%$69,751 854,757Medium metro
2/1/2021Ventura CountyCalifornia$2,0779.6%$92,236 846,006Medium metro
2/1/2021El Paso CountyTexas$7001.4%$48,903 839,238Medium metro
2/1/2021Montgomery CountyPennsylvania$1,4751.7%$92,302 830,915Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Worcester CountyMassachusetts$1,3951.5%$78,345 830,622Medium metro
2/1/2021Baltimore CountyMaryland$1,44522.1%$77,358 827,370Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Middlesex CountyNew Jersey$1,7204.3%$93,418 825,062Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Snohomish CountyWashington$1,393-3.6%$89,260 822,083Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Hamilton CountyOhio$900-2.7%$60,198 817,473Large central metro
2/1/2021Multnomah CountyOregon$1,355-2.9%$72,900 812,855Large central metro
2/1/2021Fort Bend CountyTexas$1,138-2.5%$101,293 811,688Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Suffolk CountyMassachusetts$2,000-20.0%$77,558 803,907Large central metro
2/1/2021Essex CountyNew Jersey$1,525-1.3%$64,626 798,975Large central metro
2/1/2021Oklahoma CountyOklahoma$730-7.2%$56,235 797,434Large central metro
2/1/2021Essex CountyMassachusetts$1,7931.0%$83,810 789,034Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Lee CountyFlorida$1,2001.5%$62,240 770,577Medium metro
2/1/2021Jefferson CountyKentucky$8959.1%$59,049 766,757Large central metro
2/1/2021San Mateo CountyCalifornia$2,195-19.4%$138,500 766,573Large fringe metro
2/1/2021San Joaquin CountyCalifornia$1,2009.1%$68,997 762,148Medium metro
2/1/2021Cobb CountyGeorgia$1,2606.1%$79,601 760,141Large fringe metro
2/1/2021DeKalb CountyGeorgia$1,45212.8%$63,652 759,297Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Monroe CountyNew York$1,16014.3%$62,103 741,770Large central metro
2/1/2021Denver CountyColorado$1,509-6.6%$75,646 727,211Large central metro
2/1/2021Polk CountyFlorida$9358.8%$51,833 724,777Medium metro
2/1/2021El Paso CountyColorado$1,15016.2%$72,830 720,403Medium metro
2/1/2021Norfolk CountyMassachusetts$2,095-11.8%$107,361 706,775Large fringe metro
2/1/2021District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia$2,107-10.6%$92,266 705,749Large central metro
2/1/2021Jackson CountyMissouri$1,0505.5%$57,936 703,011Large central metro
2/1/2021Lake CountyIllinois$1,235-10.9%$92,511 696,535Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Davidson CountyTennessee$1,354-3.2%$63,938 694,144Large central metro
2/1/2021Will CountyIllinois$1,1474.7%$90,134 690,743Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Bernalillo CountyNew Mexico$7909.9%$56,115 679,121Medium metro
2/1/2021Hudson CountyNew Jersey$1,900-15.9%$78,808 672,391Large central metro
2/1/2021Jefferson CountyAlabama$1,29236.3%$53,944 658,573Large central metro
2/1/2021Kent CountyMichigan$1,001-4.2%$66,532 656,955Large central metro
2/1/2021Arapahoe CountyColorado$1,2504.3%$82,710 656,590Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Tulsa CountyOklahoma$6642.2%$57,483 651,552Medium metro
2/1/2021Providence CountyRhode Island$1,40515.9%$62,994 638,931Large central metro
2/1/2021Utah CountyUtah$1,1009.5%$79,545 636,235Medium metro
2/1/2021Bucks CountyPennsylvania$1,250-0.7%$93,767 628,270Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Monmouth CountyNew Jersey$1,7509.4%$102,870 618,795Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Montgomery CountyTexas$1,050-0.4%$88,695 607,391Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Ocean CountyNew Jersey$1,4007.9%$76,093 607,186Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Johnson CountyKansas$1,0132.8%$91,771 602,401Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Brevard CountyFlorida$1,2333.0%$57,305 601,942Medium metro
2/1/2021Washington CountyOregon$1,286-1.1%$85,734 601,592Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Baltimore cityMaryland$1,45418.6%$50,177 593,490Large central metro
2/1/2021Williamson CountyTexas$1,1322.0%$92,179 590,551Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Jefferson CountyColorado$1,340-5.2%$90,040 582,881Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Anne Arundel CountyMaryland$1,6754.6%$101,147 579,234Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Douglas CountyNebraska$835-1.8%$67,133 571,327Medium metro
2/1/2021Delaware CountyPennsylvania$1,0758.0%$77,339 566,747Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Bristol CountyMassachusetts$1,4259.6%$70,402 565,217Large fringe metro
2/1/2021New Castle CountyDelaware$1,15011.1%$76,328 558,753Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Union CountyNew Jersey$1,8257.4%$80,339 556,341Large central metro
2/1/2021Pasco CountyFlorida$1,25215.9%$55,828 553,947Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Volusia CountyFlorida$9657.2%$53,766 553,284Medium metro
2/1/2021Ramsey CountyMinnesota$1,139-3.1%$68,871 550,321Large central metro
2/1/2021Dane CountyWisconsin$1,145-4.0%$77,504 546,695Medium metro
2/1/2021Lancaster CountyPennsylvania$1,05012.3%$67,376 545,724Medium metro
2/1/2021Summit CountyOhio$7081.9%$57,364 541,013Medium metro
2/1/2021Guilford CountyNorth Carolina$8039.9%$55,328 537,174Medium metro
2/1/2021Kane CountyIllinois$1,41423.0%$84,368 532,403Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Montgomery CountyOhio$6753.8%$54,537 531,687Medium metro
2/1/2021Chester CountyPennsylvania$1,6445.4%$102,016 524,989Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Greenville CountySouth Carolina$1,0250.6%$64,412 523,542Medium metro
2/1/2021Spokane CountyWashington$92512.1%$59,974 522,798Medium metro
2/1/2021Plymouth CountyMassachusetts$2,12910.2%$90,880 521,202Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Adams CountyColorado$1,21818.0%$75,804 517,421Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Sedgwick CountyKansas$618-13.8%$59,716 516,042Medium metro
2/1/2021Camden CountyNew Jersey$1,1008.9%$73,672 506,471Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Passaic CountyNew Jersey$1,60014.3%$77,040 501,826Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Sonoma CountyCalifornia$1,698-4.6%$87,828 494,336Medium metro
2/1/2021Morris CountyNew Jersey$1,950-4.9%$116,283 491,845Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Polk CountyIowa$9405.0%$66,918 490,161Medium metro
2/1/2021Clark CountyWashington$1,2905.6%$80,555 488,241Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Lake CountyIndiana$84313.9%$57,081 485,493Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Ada CountyIdaho$1,26517.7%$72,021 481,587Medium metro
2/1/2021Richmond CountyNew York$1,600-2.9%$89,821 476,143Large central metro
2/1/2021Seminole CountyFlorida$1,1491.8%$70,190 471,826Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Washoe CountyNevada$1,1005.3%$71,881 471,519Medium metro
2/1/2021Prince William CountyVirginia$1,506-6.0%$106,861 470,335Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Knox CountyTennessee$8493.7%$60,283 470,313Medium metro
2/1/2021Hampden CountyMassachusetts$1,000-7.0%$60,161 466,372Medium metro
2/1/2021Onondaga CountyNew York$8303.8%$61,577 460,528Medium metro
2/1/2021Virginia Beach cityVirginia$1,25015.7%$79,054 449,974Large central metro
2/1/2021York CountyPennsylvania$8509.7%$69,172 449,058Medium metro
2/1/2021Solano CountyCalifornia$1,6254.2%$86,652 447,643Medium metro
2/1/2021Santa Barbara CountyCalifornia$1,815-6.9%$75,653 446,499Medium metro
2/1/2021Burlington CountyNew Jersey$1,62510.9%$88,797 445,349Large fringe metro
2/1/2021East Baton Rouge ParishLouisiana$94810.8%$56,451 440,059Medium metro
2/1/2021Monterey CountyCalifornia$1,6956.3%$77,514 434,061Medium metro
2/1/2021Sarasota CountyFlorida$1,4607.0%$66,342 433,742Medium metro
2/1/2021Jefferson ParishLouisiana$868-3.1%$56,069 432,493Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Dakota CountyMinnesota$1,288-1.9%$88,864 429,021Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Lucas CountyOhio$6294.1%$49,448 428,348Medium metro
2/1/2021Cameron CountyTexas$587-9.7%$41,123 423,163Medium metro
2/1/2021Berks CountyPennsylvania$98011.4%$67,708 421,164Medium metro
2/1/2021Clackamas CountyOregon$1,285-1.0%$80,294 418,187Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Hillsborough CountyNew Hampshire$1,49215.2%$83,626 417,025Medium metro
2/1/2021Richland CountySouth Carolina$843-10.8%$52,293 415,759Medium metro
2/1/2021Loudoun CountyVirginia$1,7418.2%$151,800 413,538Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Mobile CountyAlabama$89619.5%$49,639 413,210Medium metro
2/1/2021Charleston CountySouth Carolina$1,4685.0%$71,531 411,406Medium metro
2/1/2021Genesee CountyMichigan$7196.9%$50,389 405,813Medium metro
2/1/2021Waukesha CountyWisconsin$1,2159.0%$90,548 404,198Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Manatee CountyFlorida$1,28610.4%$64,499 403,253Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Charles CountyMissouri$1,1653.6%$89,146 402,022Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Placer CountyCalifornia$1,95729.8%$97,723 398,329Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Pulaski CountyArkansas$7455.3%$52,043 391,911Medium metro
2/1/2021Orleans ParishLouisiana$1,4711.4%$45,615 390,144Large central metro
2/1/2021Orange CountyNew York$1,400-12.5%$84,458 384,940Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Collier CountyFlorida$1,3750.3%$76,025 384,902Medium metro
2/1/2021Butler CountyOhio$87914.0%$68,584 383,134Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Forsyth CountyNorth Carolina$8352.0%$52,017 382,295Medium metro
2/1/2021Lane CountyOregon$895-0.6%$57,325 382,067Medium metro
2/1/2021Allen CountyIndiana$75013.2%$56,519 379,299Medium metro
2/1/2021Osceola CountyFlorida$1,283-5.0%$51,760 375,751Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Brazoria CountyTexas$1,0243.9%$84,904 374,264Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Madison CountyAlabama$92318.0%$67,930 372,909Medium metro
2/1/2021Stark CountyOhio$5752.7%$55,499 370,606Medium metro
2/1/2021Lehigh CountyPennsylvania$1,1100.8%$65,667 369,318Medium metro
2/1/2021Hamilton CountyTennessee$995-2.9%$57,502 367,804Medium metro
2/1/2021Washtenaw CountyMichigan$1,1152.8%$76,576 367,601Medium metro
2/1/2021Mercer CountyNew Jersey$1,4497.3%$79,492 367,430Medium metro
2/1/2021Lake CountyFlorida$1,1373.4%$57,588 367,118Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Bell CountyTexas$5953.5%$54,560 362,924Medium metro
2/1/2021Nueces CountyTexas$8500.1%$56,789 362,294Medium metro
2/1/2021Anoka CountyMinnesota$1,122-1.1%$83,353 356,921Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Larimer CountyColorado$1,37414.0%$75,186 356,899Medium metro
2/1/2021Davis CountyUtah$1,39235.8%$87,427 355,481Medium metro
2/1/2021Chesterfield CountyVirginia$1,1858.3%$81,297 352,802Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Douglas CountyColorado$1,6153.2%$122,867 351,154Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Westmoreland CountyPennsylvania$6795.3%$59,073 348,899Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Marion CountyOregon$1,00017.6%$64,306 347,818Medium metro
2/1/2021Galveston CountyTexas$895-0.2%$74,977 342,139Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Hamilton CountyIndiana$1,116-0.9%$105,062 338,011Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Cumberland CountyNorth Carolina$8299.1%$46,292 335,509Medium metro
2/1/2021Rutherford CountyTennessee$1,09912.4%$69,397 332,285Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Henrico CountyVirginia$1,37518.9%$68,024 330,818Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Somerset CountyNew Jersey$1,6505.8%$111,587 328,934Large fringe metro
2/1/2021St. Lucie CountyFlorida$1,2954.3%$58,039 328,297Medium metro
2/1/2021Boulder CountyColorado$1,500-4.8%$88,535 326,196Medium metro
2/1/2021Rockland CountyNew York$1,6751.5%$100,916 325,789Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Howard CountyMaryland$1,721-1.5%$121,618 325,690Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Weld CountyColorado$895-20.4%$78,615 324,492Medium metro
2/1/2021Fayette CountyKentucky$7560.1%$58,356 323,152Medium metro
2/1/2021Durham CountyNorth Carolina$1,28729.0%$65,317 321,488Medium metro
2/1/2021Spartanburg CountySouth Carolina$87510.1%$55,339 319,785Medium metro
2/1/2021Lancaster CountyNebraska$812-5.6%$61,175 319,090Medium metro
2/1/2021Escambia CountyFlorida$1,06910.3%$53,136 318,316Medium metro
2/1/2021Lubbock CountyTexas$6450.8%$55,003 310,569Medium metro
2/1/2021Lorain CountyOhio$5893.5%$58,686 309,833Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Rockingham CountyNew Hampshire$1,3957.3%$91,249 309,769Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Albany CountyNew York$1,2756.3%$69,953 305,506Medium metro
2/1/2021Northampton CountyPennsylvania$1,295-3.4%$74,328 305,285Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Louis cityMissouri$1,0505.5%$47,176 300,576Large central metro
2/1/2021Lexington CountySouth Carolina$850-14.8%$61,631 298,750Medium metro
2/1/2021Cumberland CountyMaine$1,395-0.4%$76,059 295,003Medium metro
2/1/2021Dutchess CountyNew York$1,5057.5%$85,901 294,218Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Leon CountyFlorida$8000.0%$54,929 293,582Medium metro
2/1/2021Greene CountyMissouri$73422.3%$43,752 293,086Medium metro
2/1/2021Ingham CountyMichigan$7950.9%$54,395 292,406Medium metro
2/1/2021Clayton CountyGeorgia$850-1.9%$51,093 292,256Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Ottawa CountyMichigan$1,0404.4%$68,817 291,830Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Gloucester CountyNew Jersey$1,40034.9%$89,447 291,636Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Thurston CountyWashington$1,38310.2%$78,512 290,536Medium metro
2/1/2021Chatham CountyGeorgia$1,0754.5%$57,611 289,430Medium metro
2/1/2021Anchorage MunicipalityAlaska$9956.6%$82,716 288,000Medium metro
2/1/2021Cleveland CountyOklahoma$6756.3%$64,290 284,014Large fringe metro
2/1/2021San Luis Obispo CountyCalifornia$1,5505.1%$77,265 283,111Medium metro
2/1/2021Winnebago CountyIllinois$6953.5%$59,455 282,572Medium metro
2/1/2021York CountySouth Carolina$1,0052.4%$66,949 280,979Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Benton CountyArkansas$1,12522.9%$69,130 279,141Medium metro
2/1/2021Dauphin CountyPennsylvania$9083.7%$60,733 278,299Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Joseph CountyIndiana$1,08511.3%$53,456 271,826Medium metro
2/1/2021Kitsap CountyWashington$1,295-5.8%$79,624 271,473Medium metro
2/1/2021Erie CountyPennsylvania$6305.0%$51,818 269,728Medium metro
2/1/2021Alachua CountyFlorida$959-5.0%$49,534 269,043Medium metro
2/1/2021New London CountyConnecticut$1,000-6.6%$75,633 265,206Medium metro
2/1/2021Kalamazoo CountyMichigan$7898.8%$56,441 265,066Medium metro
2/1/2021Brown CountyWisconsin$6950.0%$64,458 264,542Medium metro
2/1/2021Atlantic CountyNew Jersey$1,1898.1%$63,389 263,670Medium metro
2/1/2021Madison CountyIllinois$72531.8%$67,440 262,966Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Washington CountyMinnesota$1,4478.4%$100,596 262,440Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Buncombe CountyNorth Carolina$1,1206.8%$54,970 261,191Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Tammany ParishLouisiana$1,0538.6%$69,076 260,419Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Weber CountyUtah$95024.2%$72,206 260,213Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Clair CountyIllinois$69116.6%$57,169 259,686Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Marin CountyCalifornia$2,250-6.3%$110,843 258,826Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Cherokee CountyGeorgia$1,36914.9%$86,404 258,773Large fringe metro
2/1/2021McLennan CountyTexas$8051.9%$50,845 256,623Medium metro
2/1/2021Cumberland CountyPennsylvania$900-4.3%$75,391 253,370Medium metro
2/1/2021Jefferson CountyTexas$764-3.9%$55,797 251,565Medium metro
2/1/2021Clay CountyMissouri$93416.0%$70,253 249,948Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Chesapeake cityVirginia$1,2353.3%$77,847 244,835Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Lafayette ParishLouisiana$8688.6%$60,567 244,390Medium metro
2/1/2021Forsyth CountyGeorgia$1,5093.7%$112,108 244,252Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Norfolk cityVirginia$991-6.1%$53,093 242,742Large central metro
2/1/2021Caddo ParishLouisiana$6696.1%$45,537 240,204Medium metro
2/1/2021Washington CountyArkansas$7471.0%$50,798 239,187Medium metro
2/1/2021Williamson CountyTennessee$1,5372.3%$115,507 238,412Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Arlington CountyVirginia$1,953-11.2%$119,755 236,842Large central metro
2/1/2021Warren CountyOhio$1,23313.2%$90,837 234,602Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Henry CountyGeorgia$1,28118.0%$71,939 234,561Large fringe metro
2/1/2021New Hanover CountyNorth Carolina$1,20011.7%$56,382 234,473Medium metro
2/1/2021Hinds CountyMississippi$7606.3%$44,964 231,840Medium metro
2/1/2021Richmond cityVirginia$1,29518.3%$51,285 230,436Large central metro
2/1/2021Hays CountyTexas$1,0747.5%$72,058 230,191Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Saratoga CountyNew York$1,70042.1%$89,932 229,863Medium metro
2/1/2021Whatcom CountyWashington$1,27510.9%$69,372 229,247Small metro
2/1/2021Brazos CountyTexas$725-13.6%$55,121 229,211Small metro
2/1/2021Berkeley CountySouth Carolina$1,1753.8%$69,398 227,907Medium metro
2/1/2021Linn CountyIowa$57910.3%$63,559 226,706Medium metro
2/1/2021Montgomery CountyAlabama$7083.0%$53,117 226,486Medium metro
2/1/2021Gaston CountyNorth Carolina$1,10523.5%$56,595 224,529Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Yolo CountyCalifornia$1,4761.1%$71,417 220,500Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Butte CountyCalifornia$95011.8%$62,563 219,186Small metro
2/1/2021Shelby CountyAlabama$1,20233.0%$75,614 217,702Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Cabarrus CountyNorth Carolina$1,14017.8%$72,333 216,453Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Okaloosa CountyFlorida$1,25019.0%$64,222 210,738Small metro
2/1/2021Champaign CountyIllinois$84027.3%$52,405 209,689Small metro
2/1/2021Tuscaloosa CountyAlabama$7257.4%$52,243 209,355Small metro
2/1/2021Johnston CountyNorth Carolina$1,04517.4%$60,951 209,339Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Delaware CountyOhio$1,2134.4%$107,854 209,177Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Montgomery CountyTennessee$84025.9%$56,948 208,993Medium metro
2/1/2021Harrison CountyMississippi$765-0.6%$50,119 208,080Medium metro
2/1/2021Washington CountyPennsylvania$650-13.3%$65,431 206,865Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Clermont CountyOhio$828-2.1%$67,744 206,428Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Elkhart CountyIndiana$91834.3%$54,531 206,341Small metro
2/1/2021Hall CountyGeorgia$1,26226.2%$67,467 204,441Small metro
2/1/2021Richmond CountyGeorgia$8006.7%$44,973 202,518Medium metro
2/1/2021St. Louis CountyMinnesota$800-33.9%$60,434 199,070Medium metro
2/1/2021Racine CountyWisconsin$1,34084.8%$60,779 196,311Small metro
2/1/2021Muscogee CountyGeorgia$7773.6%$46,934 195,769Medium metro
2/1/2021Tippecanoe CountyIndiana$7809.9%$49,352 195,732Small metro
2/1/2021Minnehaha CountySouth Dakota$7010.8%$61,968 193,134Small metro
2/1/2021Beaufort CountySouth Carolina$1,30517.0%$74,127 192,122Small metro
2/1/2021Sumner CountyTennessee$1,0838.3%$68,743 191,283Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Outagamie CountyWisconsin$1,01921.6%$66,234 187,885Small metro
2/1/2021Sarpy CountyNebraska$9030.8%$83,720 187,196Medium metro
2/1/2021Ellis CountyTexas$970-3.4%$78,797 184,826Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Cass CountyNorth Dakota$685-1.4%$62,218 181,923Small metro
2/1/2021Vanderburgh CountyIndiana$6258.1%$51,350 181,451Medium metro
2/1/2021Pitt CountyNorth Carolina$600-3.2%$53,401 180,742Small metro
2/1/2021Boone CountyMissouri$6009.1%$57,013 180,463Small metro
2/1/2021Medina CountyOhio$700-11.9%$76,468 179,746Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Newport News cityVirginia$98814.4%$53,029 179,225Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Peoria CountyIllinois$6509.2%$57,247 179,179Medium metro
2/1/2021Ulster CountyNew York$1,25019.0%$64,087 177,573Small metro
2/1/2021Shawnee CountyKansas$5943.1%$59,441 176,875Small metro
2/1/2021Midland CountyTexas$1,035-17.0%$82,558 176,832Small metro
2/1/2021Johnson CountyTexas$999-3.3%$66,319 175,817Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Bay CountyFlorida$1,1450.0%$59,450 174,705Small metro
2/1/2021Scott CountyIowa$6957.4%$65,122 172,943Medium metro
2/1/2021Winnebago CountyWisconsin$64211.6%$58,347 171,907Small metro
2/1/2021McLean CountyIllinois$5950.0%$68,784 171,517Small metro
2/1/2021Porter CountyIndiana$914-0.6%$72,483 170,389Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Hendricks CountyIndiana$1,0893.3%$85,381 170,311Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Kenosha CountyWisconsin$1,2495.1%$65,997 169,561Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Greene CountyOhio$7355.0%$67,394 168,937Medium metro
2/1/2021Kenton CountyKentucky$8205.8%$68,849 166,998Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Guadalupe CountyTexas$1,0308.4%$79,768 166,847Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Ector CountyTexas$799-33.4%$67,205 166,223Small metro
2/1/2021Lee CountyAlabama$6703.1%$53,712 164,542Small metro
2/1/2021Chittenden CountyVermont$1,400-3.4%$76,806 163,774Small metro
2/1/2021Rock CountyWisconsin$85021.6%$61,243 163,354Small metro
2/1/2021Dorchester CountySouth Carolina$1,068-1.7%$68,200 162,809Medium metro
2/1/2021Centre CountyPennsylvania$9954.2%$60,706 162,385Small metro
2/1/2021Yellowstone CountyMontana$69511.2%$61,186 161,300Small metro
2/1/2021Stearns CountyMinnesota$845-12.3%$66,558 161,075Small metro
2/1/2021Martin CountyFlorida$1,2508.7%$70,842 161,000Medium metro
2/1/2021Alexandria cityVirginia$1,800-12.4%$103,284 159,428Large central metro
2/1/2021Rensselaer CountyNew York$1,200-3.1%$71,574 158,714Medium metro
2/1/2021Olmsted CountyMinnesota$1,000-19.7%$80,096 158,293Small metro
2/1/2021Houston CountyGeorgia$69014.0%$66,740 157,863Small metro
2/1/2021Columbia CountyGeorgia$1,06418.2%$88,761 156,714Medium metro
2/1/2021Comal CountyTexas$1,07510.8%$89,315 156,209Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Schenectady CountyNew York$1,24810.9%$65,773 155,299Medium metro
2/1/2021Bibb CountyGeorgia$8554.6%$42,140 153,159Small metro
2/1/2021Johnson CountyIowa$91017.4%$66,011 151,140Small metro
2/1/2021Tolland CountyConnecticut$1,120-2.6%$91,028 150,721Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Scott CountyMinnesota$1,34410.7%$108,761 149,013Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Orange CountyNorth Carolina$1,16120.7%$74,299 148,476Medium metro
2/1/2021Monroe CountyIndiana$805-3.5%$52,453 148,431Small metro
2/1/2021Wilson CountyTennessee$1,1733.7%$80,071 144,657Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Coconino CountyArizona$1,3102.1%$58,085 143,476Small metro
2/1/2021Parker CountyTexas$975-11.0%$83,262 142,878Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Wright CountyMinnesota$1,3615.1%$91,707 138,377Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Taylor CountyTexas$6457.5%$55,351 138,034Small metro
2/1/2021Randall CountyTexas$67510.7%$70,651 137,713Medium metro
2/1/2021Spotsylvania CountyVirginia$1,51811.0%$91,073 136,215Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Marathon CountyWisconsin$8057.3%$65,851 135,692Small metro
2/1/2021Hampton cityVirginia$1,30539.9%$56,930 134,510Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Warren CountyKentucky$73912.8%$52,645 132,896Small metro
2/1/2021Wichita CountyTexas$6324.5%$51,749 132,230Small metro
2/1/2021Black Hawk CountyIowa$58510.4%$60,506 131,228Small metro
2/1/2021Madison CountyIndiana$79220.2%$55,142 129,569Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Kendall CountyIllinois$1,3998.4%$104,858 128,990Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Clarke CountyGeorgia$9056.5%$39,799 128,331Small metro
2/1/2021Bossier ParishLouisiana$8730.4%$49,962 127,039Medium metro
2/1/2021Hunterdon CountyNew Jersey$1,3503.8%$116,155 124,371Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Douglas CountyKansas$685-4.2%$64,233 122,259Small metro
2/1/2021Clark CountyIndiana$1,09959.3%$59,064 118,302Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Potter CountyTexas$6140.7%$37,297 117,415Medium metro
2/1/2021Sheboygan CountyWisconsin$1,000-4.8%$60,706 115,340Small metro
2/1/2021Delaware CountyIndiana$6003.3%$45,065 114,135Small metro
2/1/2021Lycoming CountyPennsylvania$85030.8%$53,881 113,299Small metro
2/1/2021Eaton CountyMichigan$660-18.9%$65,409 110,268Medium metro
2/1/2021Albemarle CountyVirginia$1,150-4.2%$86,399 109,330Small metro
2/1/2021Vigo CountyIndiana$5507.8%$48,013 107,038Small metro
2/1/2021Monongalia CountyWest Virginia$7007.7%$55,940 105,612Small metro
2/1/2021Carver CountyMinnesota$1,095-12.9%$101,434 105,089Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Rockwall CountyTexas$1,3586.0%$103,378 104,915Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Platte CountyMissouri$1,0779.3%$81,712 104,418Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Tompkins CountyNew York$1,100-2.7%$58,626 102,180Small metro
2/1/2021Roanoke cityVirginia$7956.0%$45,838 99,143Medium metro
2/1/2021Sevier CountyTennessee$9506.7%$57,741 98,250Micropolitan
2/1/2021Story CountyIowa$750-0.1%$63,107 97,117Small metro
2/1/2021Burleigh CountyNorth Dakota$79017.9%$72,494 95,626Small metro
2/1/2021Portsmouth cityVirginia$1,2488.6%$51,195 94,398Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Roanoke CountyVirginia$8500.0%$71,715 94,186Medium metro
2/1/2021Campbell CountyKentucky$1,2854.0%$66,439 93,584Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Dallas CountyIowa$988-0.9%$94,885 93,453Medium metro
2/1/2021Benton CountyOregon$8950.0%$70,835 93,053Small metro
2/1/2021Rockdale CountyGeorgia$9530.8%$60,560 90,896Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Ozaukee CountyWisconsin$1,24055.9%$88,154 89,221Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Dodge CountyWisconsin$750-0.7%$61,300 87,839Micropolitan
2/1/2021Howard CountyIndiana$6010.3%$53,440 82,544Small metro
2/1/2021Lynchburg cityVirginia$86713.3%$54,850 82,168Medium metro
2/1/2021Clinton CountyMichigan$777-2.0%$69,651 79,595Medium metro
2/1/2021Bedford CountyVirginia$791-7.0%$69,125 78,997Medium metro
2/1/2021Hancock CountyIndiana$7909.0%$69,392 78,168Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Chatham CountyNorth Carolina$1,30019.5%$66,857 74,470Medium metro
2/1/2021Riley CountyKansas$5902.6%$50,920 74,232Small metro
2/1/2021Jackson CountyGeorgia$79513.6%$65,063 72,977Micropolitan
2/1/2021Walker CountyTexas$480-28.0%$47,170 72,971Micropolitan
2/1/2021Broomfield CountyColorado$1,774-0.8%$111,400 70,465Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Grand Forks CountyNorth Dakota$724-2.0%$56,622 69,451Small metro
2/1/2021York CountyVirginia$9790.4%$91,241 68,280Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Boone CountyIndiana$1,14024.6%$70,813 67,843Large fringe metro
2/1/2021Ward CountyNorth Dakota$84616.7%$71,415 67,641Micropolitan
2/1/2021Mason CountyWashington$1,05023.5%$63,983 66,768Micropolitan

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