Varieties, Planting Guide, Care, Problems and Harvest
When I was little, my mother had a huge macadamia nut tree. Every year, it produced more macadamia nuts, while we could do nothing to grow it well.
It reached home, and collecting hundreds of nuts produced from it is one of my childhood memories.
Years later, I have my own house, and one of the first trees I planted was a Macadamia nut tree. I knew that it would grow into a fantastic shape and provide healthy nuts to their children for a lifetime.
What are Macadamia Nuts?
Macadamias is an evergreen tree with leaves that resemble Holi leaves. The tree produces high yields of wonderful, fleshy nuts.
Originally from Australia, macadamia trees have been planted worldwide, including California and Florida in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the United States. Commercial production of macadamia is located in Hawaii, where the environment is perfect.
Macadamia nut trees are self-pollinating, although growing more than one will give you a larger crop. You can also grow your crop by encouraging pollinators to visit your garden.
A healthy tree with a companion can produce up to 50 pounds of nuts per year.
Some varieties are also self-harvesting, meaning that the nuts fall to the ground when ripe. Others need to be pulled from the tree at the ready.
Before you bury a tree (or two) into the ground, keep in mind that many of them grow up. Macadamias can grow to be about 40 feet tall.
Varieties of macadamia
There are two main species of Macadamia, each with several varieties. Species are:
- Raneland, Macadamia Purnagruplia
- Rough Macedamia Tetriplila
M. Tetrapilla While can handle slightly colder temperatures M. Integrafolia More suited to tropical environments.
Different types that work better in home gardens and orchards:
M. Tetrapilla ‘Kate’ is a frost-hardy variety that originated in California. It is quicker and larger than other varieties.
It is one of the best Macadamia nut varieties to grow a home garden. A hybrid of M. Tetrapilla And M. Integrafolia, Beaumont has an upright growth habit rather than an outbreak, so it doesn’t take up a ton of room.
The nuts are medium to large and the fruiting season is long, meaning that you will have plenty of opportunities to stack these delicious nuts.
The ‘Vista’ is a California hybrid. It is of medium size with a habit of pyramid growth. The best thing about ‘Vista’ is that the nuts have enough shells to crack with a standard nut-cracker.
M integrifolia ‘Dorado’ is an honest habit and is resistant to cold. It produces a high yield of nuts and starts producing young, when it is just five years old.
Other good varieties for the home garden are ‘James,’ ‘Weimanalo,’ and ‘Keau’.
How to plant macadamia
Macadamias grow in areas 9 to 11. They like full sun, but will tolerate a little shade, although your crop may be small.
They prefer an average daytime temperature of about 77ºF. In areas affected by frost, temperatures of 21ºF and below will kill or severely damage trees.
Aim for soil pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Macadamias resemble slightly acidic soils, but are tolerant of slightly different soil make-up.
The soil should be fertile, so make sure that there is a lot of well-prepared manure and compost before planting. You should loam the soil and dry it well.
The best results come from grafted trees that you buy from the nursery, but you can take cuttings, propagate by layers of air, or even try to grow macadamia nuts from the seeds.
You can apply macadamia nuts, but the results can be unpredictable. It will probably take up to ten years before you try to make any nuts – if they do. Look at it as a fun project for Fame rather than how to start Orchard.
Soak whole walnuts in water overnight. Mix the nut seeds with the sprouted seeds in the seed mixture. Cover well and give water. Keep the soil moist and warm with indirect sunlight.
Once the seeds have germinated, keep stirring the warm and water well until the sprouts are large enough to handle. At this point, a large pot or replica in the ground.
Be patient Macadamia nuts may take a long period of time to germinate and start growing.
Planting a grafted variety will give you the best results and the fastest harvest.
Dig a hole twice to the root ball, lowering the plant in place. Fill around it with good quality soil. Press well.
Steak the tree in the first year to protect it from strong winds. If you have trouble with them in your area then protect them from deer.
If you plant more than one Macadamia tree, plant them about 20 feet apart. If you plant in rows, set the rows up to 36 feet apart.
Macadamia trees do better if you give them some protection from the wind, especially when they are young. They need a lot of water when they are young. If your plant does not get enough water, it will suffer or die.
In the first year, Macadamia trees require the most water. Soak the ground thoroughly once a week. If the soil dries too quickly then provide more.
You can reduce water according to the age of the tree, but it still requires at least two inches of water per week. A mature tree can use about 100 gallons of water per week in extreme heat.
Native around the Macadamia tree to reduce the soil drying out for at least the first four years. Next, mulberry mulch to avoid excess nitrogen in the soil.
Compost in the spring with a fertilizer high in nitrogen and potassium. Avoid high levels of phosphorus. If you are mulching, avoid fertilizer with high levels of nitrogen as well.
Pruning to Macadamia
Pruning may be necessary, but be careful when working with macadamia. If you close the leaf too much, it often becomes overpowering and has the disadvantage of making nuts.
Any diseased or damaged branches, and any branches extending very far.
To collect the nuts for weed control and access, prick the trunk three feet above the ground.
While macadamia is young, you can prune for size. Once the leader shoot is about 32 inches, place it at the top to promote branching.
Planting Partner for Growing Macedonia
Try to limit companion planting with macadamia, as they have very delicate roots.
Plant crops with shallow roots such as:
- Marigold flower
Although the comfrey is not shallow-rooted (it has a tap root), it appears to be fine. A Macadamia tree of mine is surrounded by the comfrey and is doing fine. I cut back the comfrey each year to make comfrey tea and mulch.
Common problems and solutions for growing macadamia
Most modern varieties of macadamia are relatively disease and insect-resistant, but there are some issues that you may have to face in growing macadamia nuts.
This fungal disease is often present in areas with high humidity and when trees are stressed due to lack of water.
Read our detailed article about the identification and treatment of anthracnose.
With husk, the lesions begin small and yellow outside before expanding. They are often included in white spores.
This fungal disease will affect the yield of your crop. Use a broad spectrum fungicide to control.
Mice and Mice
By laying delicious, oily nuts on the ground, mice and other nut-loving creatures will move inside.
Remove all nuts regularly and do not allow nuts that will protect you from rotting on the ground.
Macadamia nut borer
These small insects get bored into the husbands of nuts. Once they enter, pesticides have the least impact. The nut will fall prematurely from the tree.
Apply the insecticide at the time you see the nuts on the ground affected by the borer. You should see a hole with debris around the edge. There may also be scale-like eggs on the outside of the husk.
Early treatment is the key.
Using Harvest and Macadamia Nuts
If you have planted a grafted tree, you should get a good crop in about three years. By year seven you will be getting big yields.
They go mad or fall between late spring and autumn. The nuts will still attach to their husk which is slowly cracked open, dividing into a nut inside the rash.
You know they are ripe when the husk turns brown, shrinks and splits. Nuts should also feel dry and not to deal with.
The beauty of macadamia falls the most as they ripen. Not all of them will cook at the same time.
Each time you lift the nuts, remove the husk directly. Place the walnuts (still in its hard shell) on a wire rack to dry for a week or a week.
Removing macadamia nut from the shell
Macadamias are extremely difficult and if you hit them with a hammer, you can break the nut inside.
You can buy a specialty macadamia nutcracker that slowly winds up the pressure or uses a clean vice.
There are a number of clever ways you can take to remove macadamia nuts, but any method you choose will be time consuming. The end result is worth it though.
Eat them directly, use them in baking, store in glass jars or freeze. Your crop will be abundant for years to come.
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